AAA= Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm .
Accelerate= تسریع کردن
Adventitia= adventia; the outermost connective tissue covering of any organ, vessel, or other structure.
Anastomotic circle= circle of Willis; cerebral arterial circle; a circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain.
Aorta= this vessel carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the various parts of the body.
Aortic Valve= separates the left ventricle from the aorta. As the ventricles contract, it opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left ventricle to flow throughout the body. It closes as the ventricles relax.
Aphasia= partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or using written words.
Arteriolar sclerosis= sclerosis and thickening of the walls of the smaller arteries (arterioles).
Arteriosclerosis= a chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls with resulting loss of elasticity; سخت رگى ،تصلب شرایین
Atheromatous= a deposit or degenerative accumulation of lipid-containing plaques on the innermost layer of the wall of an artery.
Atherosclerosis= an arteriosclerosis characterized by atheromatous (an abnormal fatty deposit in an artery) deposits in and fibrosis of the inner layer of the arteries. An artery is made up of several layers: an inner lining called the endothelium, an elastic membrane, a layer of smooth muscle, and a layer of connective tissue. Arteriosclerosis is a broad term that includes a hardening of the inner and middle layers of the artery.
Atria= the plural of atrium (دهلیز) .
Atriovenous malformation= AVM .
Atrioventricular septum of heart= the small part of the membranous septum of the heart just above the septal cusp (a fold of a cardiac valve) of the tricuspid valve, separating the right atrium from the left ventricle.
Attempt= کوشش کردن ،مبادرت کردن
AV= Arteriovenous; Atrioventricular.
Berry Aneurysm= saccular aneurysm; a sac-like outpouching in a cerebral blood vessel, which can seem berry-shaped. Once a berry aneurysm has formed it is likely to rupture, causing a stroke.
Bleed= خون امدن
Burst= ترکیدن ،ازهم پاشیدن
CAD= Coronary Artery Disease .
CHD= Coronary Heart Disease .
Chorda Tendinea= tendons linking the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve in the right ventricle and the mitral valve in the left ventricle.
Claudication= لنگى ،شلى
Clipping= عمل کوتاه کردن
Clump= انبوه، دسته، خوشه
Coarctation= تنگی ، فشردگی
Coil= فنر، ،سیم پیچ
Congestion= جمع شدن خون یااخلاط ، گرفتگی
Contraindication= any reason that a drug should not be taken, including harmful interactions with other drugs and the individual’s personal sensi-tivity and condition.
Coolness = خنکى
Coronary Arteries= the coronary arteries are the network of blood vessels that carry oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the cardiac muscle tissue.
Crush= فشردن ،خردشدن
CVA= Cerebrovascular Accident .
Dacron= a synthetic polyester fiber used to surgically repair damaged sections of heart muscle and blood vessel walls; الیاف مصنوعی
Demand= احتیاج ،خواستارشدن
Dextrocardia= abnormal condition in which the heart is on the right side of the body
Digitalis= Drug derived from leaves of the common foxglove and used as a drug that strengthens heart muscle contraction.
Dislodge= ازجای خودبیرون کردن، راندن
Dissect= to cut apart or separate (tissue), especially for anatomical study.
Dissecting aneurysm= a localized widening (dilatation) of an artery in which the wall of an artery rips (پاره) longitudinally. This occurs because bleeding into the weakened wall splits the wall.
DVT= Deep Vein Thrombosis .
Dysphagia= نارسایى بلع
Dysphasia= a partial or complete impairment of the ability to communicate resulting from brain injury.
Eddy= جریان متلاطم
Effusion= escape of a fluid into a part
Embolization= the process or condition of becoming an embolus; therapeutic introduction of a substance into a vessel in order to occlude it.
Embolus= an abnormal particle (e.g. an air bubble or part of a clot) circulating in the blood (thrombosis attached, embolus moving)
Epistaxis= خون دماغ
Extremity= end part of a limb of the body, نهایت، حدنهایی
False lumen= in a dissecting aneurysm, the abnormal channel within the wall of the involved artery
Foam= frothy (کفدار) saliva ; حباب هاى ریز،کف
Foramen ovale= a small hole located in the atrial septum that is used during fetal circulation to speed up the travel of blood through the heart. Normally the foramen ovale closes at birth .
Hemiparesis= loss of movement on one side of the body.
Inferior Vena Cava= one of the two main veins bringing de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the legs and lower torso feed into the inferior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
Interatrial septum of heart = the partition separating the right and left atria of the heart.
Interventricular septum= the wall between the ventricles of the heart
IVC= Inferior Vena Cava, Intravenous Cholangiogram .
Knob= تکمه ،برامدگى
Left Atrium= receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary vein. As the contraction triggered by the sinoatrial node progresses through the atria, the blood passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle; atria is plural of atrium .
Left Ventricle= receives oxygenated blood as the left atrium contracts. The blood passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. The aortic valve leading into the aorta is closed, allowing the ventricle to fill with blood. Once the ventricles are full, they contract. As the left ventricle contracts, the mitral valve closes and the aortic valve opens.
Mitral Valve= separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. It opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left atrium to flow into the left ventricle.
Monckeberg’s medial sclerosis= form of arteriosclerosis or vessel hardening, where calcium deposits form in the middle layer of the walls of medium sized vessels.
Murmur= سخن نرم ،شکایت ،زمزمه کردن
Nausea= حالت تهوع .
NG= Nasogastric .
Notch= بریدگی، شکاف ، فرورفتگی
Occlude= مسدود کردن
Patency= the openness of a bodily passage or duct, گشودگى
Patent foramen ovale= PFO; while a baby grows in the womb, there is a normal opening between the left and right atria of the heart. If this opening fails to close naturally soon after the baby is born, the hole is called patent foramen ovale .
Papillary Muscles= attach to the lower portion of the interior wall of the ventricles. They connect to the chordae tendineae, which attach to the tricuspid valve in the right ventricle and the mitral valve in the left ventricle. The contraction of the papillary muscles opens these valves. When the papillary muscles relax, the valves close.
Patent= حق انحصارى اختراع ،امتیازنامه
Phlebitis= inflammation of the veins
Postural hypertension= a medical condition where blood pressure falls rapidly after the body changes position most commonly occurring after standing up after sitting for long periods of time. It is also known as orthostatic hypertension
Posture= وضع ،حالت
Predispose= مستعد کردن ،زمینه را مهیا ساختن
Prespiration= the secretion of fluid by the sweat (sudoriferousعرق زا،) glands.
Prominent= برجسته ،والا
PTA= Percutaneous (زیر پوستى) Transluminal Angioplasty; a type of balloon angioplasty in which the catheter is inserted through the skin and through the lumen of the vessel to the site of the narrowing.
Remnant= باقى مانده ، بقایا
Pulmonary Artery= the vessel transporting de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. A common misconception is that all arteries carry oxygen-rich blood.
Pulmonary Valve= separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery. As the ventricles contract, it opens to allow the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right ventricle to flow to the lungs.
Pulmonary Vein= the vessel transporting oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium. A common misconception is that all veins carry de-oxygenated blood.
Restrict= محدود کردن
Retention= ابقا، نگهداری
Right Atrium= receives de-oxygenated blood from the body through the superior vena cava (head and upper body) and inferior vena cava (legs and lower torso). The sinoatrial node sends an impulse that causes the cardiac muscle tissue of the atrium to contract. The tricuspid valve, which separates the right atrium from the right ventricle, opens to allow the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right atrium to flow into the right ventricle.
Right Ventricle= receives de-oxygenated blood as the right atrium contracts. The pulmonary valve leading into the pulmonary artery is closed, allowing the ventricle to fill with blood. Once the ventricles are full, they contract. As the right ventricle contracts, the tricuspid valve closes and the pulmonary valve opens.
Rubella= روبلا ، سرخجه
Septal defect= a congenital abnormality in the septum between the left and right sides of the heart
Septum= thin membrane that serves to divide two bodily cavities or tissues
Shrink= چوروک شدن ،منقبض شدن
Shunt= a passage or anastomosis between two natural channels
Superior Vena Cava=SVC; one of the two main veins bringing de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the head and upper body feed into the superior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
Tetralogy of Fallot= TOF; a congenital heart defect, involve four anatomical abnormalities: 1.ventricular septal defect; 2.pulmonary stenosis; 3.overriding of the aorta (the aorta is positioned directly over aventricular septal defect); 4.right ventricular hypertrophy. Infants and children with tetralogy of Fallot usually have blue-tinged skin because their blood doesn’t carry enough oxygen.
Tetralogy= a compound work that is made up of four
Thrombosis= the formation or presence of a thrombus in a blood vessel (thrombosis attached, embolus moving).
TIA= Transient (زود گذر،ناپایدار) Ischemic Attack; mini stroke .
Tricuspid Valve= separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. It opens to allow the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right atrium to flow into the right ventricle. It closes as the right ventricle contracts, preventing blood from returning to the right atrium; thereby, forcing it to exit through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.
True lumen= in a dissecting aneurysm, the channel representing the actual intima-lined artery.
Tunica media= the middle, usually muscular, coat of a blood or lymph vessel; غشا میانی .
Upper extremity= the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, or hand; also called superior limb, thoracic limb .
Ventricle= cavity in an organ, بطن
Ventricular septal defect= a hole in the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart. This abnormality usually develops before birth . Unoxygenated blood returns to right atrium, then the right ventricle, and the lungs. After leaving the lungs, the oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium, then the left ventricle, and to all the tissues
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